Buddhism: Most Popular Articles
The Four Noble Truths are the foundation of Buddhism.
This simple account of the historic Buddha's life covers his early life, the Four Passing Sights, the Renunciation, the Quest, his Enlightenment, and his later life as a teacher.
There's more to Buddhism than shaving one's head and being blissful. Here is an introduction to Buddhism for beginners.
This is a bare-bones introduction to Zen Buddhism for those who don't know Zen from spinach. It includes a brief history of the school and the Zen definition of Zen.
What do Buddhists believe? In Buddhism, beliefs are beside the point, and doctrines are a means to an end, not the end itself.
The Eightfold Path is the Buddha's prescription for relieving suffering. It is the means by which one can realize enlightenment and enter Nirvana.
Is Buddhism a philosophy or a religion? Clarifying this point is important to understanding Buddhism.
What is Nirvana? The Buddha told his monks that Nirvana cannot be imagined. Even so, the word needs a definition. Here is an explanation of Nirvana in Buddhism -- what it is, and what it is not.
Would you be surprised to hear that reincarnation is not a doctrine of Buddhism? If so, be surprised -- it isn't.
The dharma wheel is a symbol of Buddhism.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >The Buddha didn't
The Buddha taught that an individual is a combination of five aggregates, called the Five Skandhas. The skandhas are empty of intrinsic self; the self is no-self (anatman or anatta in Theravada Buddhism and shunyata in Mahayana Buddhism). These teachings are difficult to understand but essential to Buddhism.
The Six Realms are an allegorical description of conditioned existence, or samsara, into which beings are reborn. The nature and conditions of one's existence is determined by karma. Certainly some realms seem more desirable than others -- heaven sounds preferable to hell -- but all are dukkha, meaning they are temporary and imperfect.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >You may have heard
Buddhism challenges us to think about sexual ethics and morals very differently from the way most of us have been taught to think about them. What does Buddhism teach about sex?
This calendar of Buddhist holidays for 2013 is ordered by date instead of by holiday, so that you can follow along through the year. Note that the several traditions of Buddhism do not all observe the same holidays at the same time.
Images of the Eight Auspicious Symbols of Buddhism, with their meanings.
As used in Buddhism, the word
Is there prayer in Buddhism? No, and yes, depending on what you mean by prayer. Here is a brief explanation.
If atheism is the absence of belief in gods, then many Buddhists are atheists. Why then do Buddhists pray and bow to Buddha figures on altars?
A Basic Guide to Buddhist Chanting.
The Buddha taught that Right View is an essential part of the Buddhist path. In fact, it is part of the Eightfold Path, which is the basis of all Buddhist practice.
A condensed 1,000-year history of Buddhism in China, from the year 1 to 1000 CE.
Understanding the laws of karma is essential to understanding Buddhism. Yet karma is mostly misunderstood by Westerners. This essay briefly explains the Buddhist view of karma.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >It is often asked
In the West, many of us begin our journey in Buddhism by reading a book. We are fortunate today that there are several books in the English language that can introduce us to Buddhism, and more are published every year. I don't presume to know which book is
Anger is a poison and an obstacle to enlightenment, the Buddha said. Yet we all get angry. What does Buddhism teach about dealing with anger?
The Wheel of Life is one of the most common subjects of Tibetan Buddhist art. The detailed symbolism of the Wheel is rich with meaning that can be interpreted on many levels.
The esoteric teachings, secret initiations and erotic imagery associated with Buddhist tantra have fueled no end of interest. But tantra may not be what you think it is.
Much of what people in the West believe about Buddhism is mistaken. It is all too common to find a magazine or web article about Buddhism that begins
Although the robes of Buddhist monks and nuns come in many colors and styles, they are all part of a tradition going back to the time of the historical Buddha, 26 centuries ago.
When Westerners think of Buddha, usually they picture the short, fat, bald version, not the austere and serious meditating Buddha. Where did the Laughing Buddha come from?
In Buddhism, dharma most commonly is used to refer to the teachings of the Buddha. But the word has a great many other significant meanings.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >The historical
Of the countless scriptures of Mahayana Buddhism, few are more widely read or revered than the Lotus Sutra. This article gives a brief overview of the sutra and its history.
Mindfulness is a whole-body-and-mind awareness of the present moment that is a cornerstone of Buddhist practice
A brief introduction to the Heart Sutra for the completely baffled.
The historical Buddha and his disciples were not vegetarians. Why then did vegetarianism come to be associated with Buddhism?
An explanation of the symbolic meanings of the lotus in Buddhist art and literature.
The Buddhist Precepts are not a list of commandments to follow. Here is an introduction to the Precepts, both Theravada and Mahayana
Why I can give you no good reason to convert to Buddhism.
The Buddha is pictured in many ways, and the word Buddha is used to mean many things. Just who or what is a Buddha?
Right Speech is a portion of the Buddhist Eightfold Path. What do Buddhists mean by Right Speech?
Is sexism intrinsic to Buddhism, or did Buddhist institutions absorb sexism from Asian culture? Can Buddhism treat women as equals, and remain Buddhism?
The law of karma is a law of cause and effect, or an understanding that every deed produces fruit. The fruits of karma affect our lives and cause rebirth.
The creature holding the Wheel of Life in his hooves is Yama, the wrathful dharmapala who is Lord of the Hell Realm. Dharmapalas are not evil beings, but rather are the fierce protectors of Buddhism and Buddhists. Page 2.
Dependent Origination is a Buddhist teaching on the nature of existence -- nothing exists independently of other things.
There are a few basic teachings that distinguish all forms of Mahayana. Here Mahayana and Theravada are compared to make these distinctions clear.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Evil is a word
The Diamond Sutra is a jewel of the world's religious literature and one of the most revered texts of Mahayana Buddhism. This article describes the sutra's origins and history.
The Buddha taught that compassion isn't just a nice virtue; it is essential to realizing enlightenment.
The Six Perfections are guides for those who seek enlightenment in Mahayana Buddhism.
The Sanskrit word samsara means. Buddhism.
The demon Mara plays a role in many stories of the Buddha and his monks, and in particular the story of the Buddha's enlightenment. This article discusses Mara's origins and what he represents in Buddhism.
The second aspect of the Eightfold Path of Buddhism is Right Intention or Right Thought. Why are our thoughts or intentions so important?
To become a Buddhist, a person vows to take refuge in the Three Jewels or Three Treasures. The Three Jewels are the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha. This essay explains what each jewel represents. Page 2.
The story of the Buddha's birth is rich with mythical symbolism.
The distinctive practices and teachings of Theravada, the oldest school of Buddhism.
Right Livelihood is the fifth. Buddhism.
Rinzai is one of the two schools of Japanese Zen Buddhism.
The Sanskrit word for enlightenment is
Offering food is one of the oldest and most common rituals in Buddhism. Food is offered to monks and ritually to deities and hungry ghosts. Here is a brief explanation of the meaning and purpose of Buddhist food offerings.
Buddhists often speak of Buddhism as a practice rather than a faith. What exactly is Buddhist practice?
The Buddha said there are twelve links ( nidanas ) in the "chain" of Dependent Origination . Dependent
Right Action is the fourth aspect of the Buddhist Eightfold Path. But what is Right Action, exactly? Here is a brief explanation
Understanding the Four Noble Truths is critical to understanding Buddhism. Here is a simple introduction for beginners.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Most people have
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >In the 26 centuries
The Five Dhyani Buddhas are transcendent Buddhas visualized in tantric meditation. The five Buddhas are Aksobhya, Amitabha, Amoghasiddhi, Ratnasambhava and Vairocana. Each represents a different aspect of enlightened consciousness to aid in spiritual transformation. Often in Vajrayana art they are arranged in a mandala, with Vairocana in the center. Page 2.
Buddhism opposes war, but sometimes Buddhists must go to war. Buddhism values pacifism, yet Buddhism is associated with martial arts. What does Buddhism teach about war?
Retreats are a great way to initiate a personal exploration of Buddhism, and of yourself. Here is advice about how to find authentic Buddhist retreats and what to expect when you participate in one.
No-self; the central Buddhist teaching that individual identity is ephemeral.
A brief explanation of Right Effort as the sixth part of the Buddhist Eightfold Path
Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva is beloved to Mahayana Buddhists as the embodiment of infinite compassion.
Desires are inexhaustible, especially in our consumerist culture. What does Buddhism teach about greed and desire?
The Asura (Jealous God) Realm is marked by paranoia. Asuras are hyper-competitive and paranoid. They are driven by a desire to beat their competition, and everyone is competition. Page 4.
Hungry Ghosts (Pretas) are beings with a hunger that can never be satisfied. They have huge, empty stomachs, but their thin necks don't allow nourishment to pass. Food turns to fire and ash in their mouths. Page 5.
The Realm of the Gods (Devas) is the highest realm of the Wheel of Life and is always depicted at the top of the Wheel. It's nice being a Deva, but even the Devas are subject to karma, death and rebirth. Page 3.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Definition: The
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >The study of Buddhism
The three characteristics -- impermanence, suffering and egolessness -- mark all compounded things.
: Mahayana, which means "Great Vehicle" in Sanskrit, is one of the two major schools of Buddhism . It
Buddhism teaches that abortion is the taking of a human life, but at the same time most Buddhists are reluctant to interfere with a woman's personal decision to abort. From a Buddhist perspective, these positions are not contradictory.
Kathina is an ancient ceremony for giving Buddhist monks and nuns gifts of cloth to make robes.
Right Concentration is the eighth part of the Buddhist Eightfold Path. Through Right Concentration, the mind finds its way to wisdom and enlightenment.
The Dalai Lama has spent his long exile as an activist for peace and an ambassador of Buddhism to the world. Page 2.
Sunyata, or Emptiness. Buddhism.
A list of the 14 Dalai Lamas, with brief biographies.
In Buddhism, the Five Skandhas are aggregates of mental and physical characteristics that come together to create an individual. Personality and ego are creations of the skandhas.
Dorje Shugden is an iconic character from Tibetan mythology with a loyal following. At a time when Tibetan Buddhism is in diaspora and under terrible stress, Shugden followers seem bent on destroying Tibetan Buddhism altogether -- in the name of saving it.
Om Mani Padme Hum (Sanskrit) or Om Mani Peme Hung (Tibetan) is a Tibetan Buddhist mantra meaning
The Buddha taught his disciples to develop equanimity. What do Buddhists mean by equanimity, and how do you develop it?
This is the story of the enlightenment of the Buddha, including his meditation under the bodhi tree and the temptations of Mara.
The Hell Realm is marked by anger, terror and claustrophobia. Hell Beings (Narakas) are known for their aggression. Page 6.
Bodhisattvas are idealized in Mahayana art and literature, and they are also ordinary people. They exemplify compassion and wisdom, and they vow to help all beings realize enlightenment and enter Nirvana.
A vajra is a Buddhist symbol and ritual object with several meanings. Learn more about this word and its definition.
These are good beginner-level books for people who want to learn about Zen Buddhism. Although Zen itself is not something that can be learned from books, these might tell you if Zen is something you want to explore further.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Dr. Andrew Skilton,
The Fifth Precept of Buddhism, translated from the Pali Canon, is
A few days ago His Holiness the Dalai Lama called for an outside inquiry into the continuing self-immolations of Tibetan Buddhists protesting China's policies
Buddha Nature, an essential doctrine of Mahayana Buddhism, is the already enlightened nature of all beings.
Can there be Buddhism without the rituals? Maybe, but the rituals do have a purpose.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Clergy and lay
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >The "earth witness"
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" >secular crew that rejects karma , rebirth
The veneration of tantric deities looks like polytheism, but it isn't. Instead, it is a means to realize enlightenment by realizing oneself as a goddess or god.
Advice for choosing a school of Buddhism that is right for you
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Japanese Buddhism
To become a Buddhist is to take refuge in the Three Jewels, also called the Three Treasures -- the Buddha, the Dharma, the Sangha.
According to the Mahayana Buddhist teaching of sunyata -- emptiness or void -- all beings and phenomena are empty of independent, permanent essence.
Buddhism comes in many sectarian flavors. This is a very basic guide to major schools for people new to Buddhism.
At his death, the historical Buddha entered complete Nirvana, also called Parinirvana. This is the story of the Buddha's final days.
Why do Buddhists need teachers? How do you find a teacher? How can you tell real Buddhist teachers from frauds? Here are some basic guidelines to help you find the right teacher for you.
The koan Mu, also known as Chao-chou's Dog, is one of the most famous Zen koans. Here is a brief introduction to the koan.
Bodhidharma (ca. 470-543) was an Indian monk credited with founding Ch'an (Zen) Buddhism.
The name sutra (Sanskrit for thread) in Buddhism originally was given only to the sermons of the historical Buddha.
The Pali Canon is the earliest canon of Buddhist scripture. It is also called the
Dragons often appear in Buddhist art and literature. Where did they come from, and what do they represent?
The Five Dhyani Buddhas are transcendent Buddhas visualized in tantric meditation. The five Buddhas are Aksobhya, Amitabha, Amoghasiddhi, Ratnasambhava and Vairocana. Each represents a different aspect of enlightened consciousness to aid in spiritual transformation. Often in Vajrayana art they are arranged in a mandala, with Vairocana in the center. Page 3.
The earliest written scriptures of Buddhism, the texts were kept alive through the years by being memorized and chanted by generations of monks.
Buddhist scholars generally understand a Pure Land as a transcendent state of being. In Asian folklore, Pure Land is thought of as a real place.
This is a brief history of Tibetan Buddhism from in 641 CE, when King Songtsen Gampo unified Tibet and married two Buddhist princesses, to 1642, when the 5th Dalai Lama became ruler of Tibet.
A look at Buddhist approach to morality, which avoids absolutes and rigid commandments and encourages one to weigh and analyze situations on one's own.
At the center of the Wheel of Life are the forces that keep it turning -- hate, desire and ignorance. Page 9.
Renunciation in Buddhism is not penance or self-punishment. Instead, it is an act of liberation from the things that bind us to suffering.
The Vimalakirti Sutra is a popular and influential Mahayana Buddhist scripture. This article provides a brief summary and background.
Animal Beings (Tiryakas) are solid, regular and predictable. They cling to what is familiar and are disinterested, even fearful, of anything outside their limited experience. Page 7.
In Mahayana Buddhism, the ideal of practice is to become a bodhisattva who strives to liberate all beings from the cycle of birth and death. The Bodhisattva Vows are vows taken formally by a Buddhist to do exactly that. The vows also are an expression of bodhichitta, the desire to realize enlightenment for the sake of others.
Hungry Ghosts are characters from Buddhist iconography who suffer from their greed, envy and jealousy.
Bodhisattvas work to bring all beings to enlightenment. Countless transcendent bodhisattvas are found in Buddhist art and literature, but these five are the most important.
Karma means. Buddhism.
Of the Six Realms, it is only in the Human Realm that the path of liberation from the Wheel can be found. Page 8.
The Buddha taught mindfulness by providing four foundations, or frames of reference, that we can use to train ourselves to be mindful.
How do Buddhists give thanks for food? Here are meal chants from three schools of Buddhism that are chanted before meals, expressing gratitude.
The Three Poisons - Greed, Hate and Ignorance - are the primary causes of evil (akusala) in Buddhism.
The Buddha and his first disciples had no fixed place to call home. They slept under trees and begged for all of their food. Their only clothes were robes they patched together from cloth taken from rubbish heaps.
Buddhas and bodhisattvas often are depicted in Buddhist art with stylized hand gestures called
You can find Buddhist teachings about finding the self, losing the self, small self, big self, original self, true self, and no self. What's a self?
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >What Is Enlightenment?
The historical BuddhaÃ¢ÂÂs most famous statements on women came about when his stepmother and aunt, Maha Pajapati Gotami, asked to join the Sangha and become a nun. The Buddha initially refused her request. Eventually he relented, but in doing so he made conditions and a prediction that remain controversial to this day.
A Buddha figure appears in the upper right-hand corner of the Bhavachakra, representing hope for liberation from the Wheel. Page 10.
Giving to others is essential to the practice of Buddhism. However, one's motivation for giving to others is at least as important as what is given.
: In Sanskrit, bodhi means "awakened" and chitta means "mind" or "heart." Bodhichitta -- "awakened heart-mind"
Anicca, impermanence, is one of the Three Marks of Existence in Buddhism.
The answer varies from one part of Asia to another. In most Asian nations the date is determined by the lunar calendar and changes from year to year.
Tibetan Buddhist monks debate doctrines at the Jokhang Temple on June 20, 2009 in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China. Traditionally, Lhasa is the seat of the Dalai Lama and the capital of Tibet, and is the highest capital in the world. (Photo by Feng Li/Getty Images). Page 9.
The Second Noble Truth explains why life is unsatisfactory.
Monks at the Samye Ling Buddhist Monastery and Tibetan Centre, prepare for prayers in the temple June 5, 2007 in Eskdalemuir in Scotland. The centre largest of its kind in the West, was established in 1967 is celebrating its 40th anniversary. (Photo by Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images). Page 10.
Manjusri is one of the most important iconic figures of Mahayana Buddhist art and literature. He represents prajna, wisdom that is not confined to conceptual knowledge.
The Two Truths Doctrine of Mahayana Buddhism explains the nature of reality.