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Paramita

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Definition:

The Sanskrit word paramita usually is translated "perfection." The paramitas are virtues or "perfections" that a Buddhist cultivates.

In Theravada Buddhism, the Ten Paramitas (in English and Pali) are

  1. Giving; generosity (dana)
  2. Morality (sila)
  3. Renunciation (nekkhamma)
  4. Discernment; wisdom (pañña)
  5. Energy (viriya)
  6. Patience (khanti)
  7. Truthfulness (sacca)
  8. Determination (adhitthana)
  9. Loving kindness (metta)
  10. Equanimity (upekkha)

In Mahayana Buddhism, the Ten Paramitas (in English and Sanskrit) are:

  1. Giving; generosity (dana)
  2. Morality (shila)
  3. Patience (kshanti)
  4. Energy; vitality (virya)
  5. Concentration; meditation (dhyana)
  6. Wisdom (prajna)
  7. Skillful means (upaya)
  8. Aspiration (pranidhana)
  9. Spiritual strength (bala)
  10. Knowledge (jnana)

In Mahayana Buddhism, originally there were Six Perfections, and paramitas seven through ten were added later. In old texts that refer to the Six Perfections, these are giving, morality, patience, energy, concentration, and wisdom.

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