Losar is the Tibetan New Year, a three-day festival that mixes sacred and secular practices -- prayers, ceremonies, hanging prayer flags, sacred and folk dancing, partying.
During the month before Losar, in Tibetan households the eight auspicious symbols and other signs are drawn on walls with white powder. In monasteries, the several protector deities are honored with devotional rituals.
On the last day of the year, monasteries are elaborately decorated. In homes, cakes, candies, breads, fruits and beer are offered on family altars.
Tibetans follow a lunar calendar, so the date of Losar changes from year to year.
Day 1: Lama Losar
The devout Tibetan Buddhist begins the new year by honoring his or her dharma teacher. Guru and disciple greet each other with wishes of peace and progress. It is also traditional to offer sprouted barley seeds and buckets of tsampa (roasted barley flour with butter) and other grains on home altars to ensure a good harvest. Laypeople visit friends to wish them Tashi Delek -- "auspicious greetings"; loosely, "very best wishes."
His Holiness the Dalai Lama and other high lamas gather in a ceremony to make offerings to the high dharma protectors (dharmapalas), in particular the dharmapala Palden Lhamo, who is a special protector of Tibet. The day also includes sacred dances and debates of Buddhist philosophy.
Day 2: Gyalpo Losa
The second day of Losar, called Gyalpo or "King's" Losar, is for honoring community and national leaders. Long ago it was a day for kings to hand out gifts at public festivals. In Dharamsala, His Holiness the Dalai Lama exchanges greetings with officials of the Tibetan government in exile and with visiting foreign dignitaries.
Day 3: Choe-kyong Losar
On this day, laypeople make special offerings to the dharma protectors. They raise prayer flags from hills, mountains and rooftops and burn juniper leaves and incense as offerings. The dharmapalas are praised in chant and song and asked for blessings.
This ends the spiritual observance of Losar. However, the subsequent parties may go on for another 10 to 15 days.